Rabu, 05 Mei 2010

The Concept of Pancasila "Berthawaf"

The Concept of Pancasila "Berthawaf" By Turiman Fachturahman Nur.

1. How Understanding the Five Principles are legally so long?
Understanding the meaning of Pancasila has been philosophically there is a tendency juridical hierarchical pyramid structure for this because this is an academic understanding of Pancasila is always based on the views of Prof. Dr. Drs. Notonagoro that proposed in the Speech Dies Natalis Langga Air University on 10 November 1955 that currently most referenced and a backrest when discussing the philosophy of Pancasila. Notonagoro argues, in his book Philosophy Pancasila Association of the Republic of Indonesia, in 1962 argued: "The composition of Pancasila is hierarchis and has a pyramidal shape. If the core essence, massage - the five principles of the sequence shows a short circuit in this area, each - each was behind sila sila Another is the specialism of the sila - sila which dimukanya. If the sequences of the five principles are considered to have an intention so, then there is a correlation between the five principles that bind one to the other, so that Pancasila is a unity of the round.

2.How the concept of Pancasila Hirakis Pyramid?
To clarify the views Notonagoro, the following description is more clearly presented as quoted by Kaelan: "Pancasila consists of five principles, which is an entity that is a single compound is essentially unitary character of the five precepts is a pyramidal hierarchy. Unitary sila - sila Pancasila is a unity of the storied (hierarkies) and pyramidal shape. Understanding math is used to describe the relationship of pyramidal hierarchy of moral principle - principles of Pancasila in terms of sequence size (quantity) and also in terms of content and nature (quality). When viewed from the point , then the sequence of the five precepts shows a series of stories in terms of its breadth and content of character, every other principle behind the precepts which are narrower width but more content will be its nature, is a specialization of the sila-sila in his face.

3 .How Explanation of Pancasila in a hierarchical structure of the Pyramid?
The order of the five precepts that have a mutually binding relationship between the precepts of them by others so it is a unity of the round. In pyramidal-shaped arrangement of hierarchical unity is the principle the supreme deity is the most widely because it is the base (the base) from the four other precepts. The formulation of sila-sila unitary Pancasila which is hierarchical and pyramidal shape are as follows; sila supreme deity, is the underlying, involves and inspires sila-sila, just and civilized humanity, unity of Indonesia, led by the populist wisdom in consultation / representation, and social justice for all Indonesian people. the precepts of a just and civilized humanity, is based on, overwhelmed and inspired by the precepts ketuhan the mighty one, underlying, involves and inspires sila-sila Indonesian unity, democracy led by wisdom in consultation / representation and social justice, the precepts of unity of Indonesia, is based on, inspired and overwhelmed with the precepts supreme deity, just and civilized humanity, and the base, cover, and the animating principle which is led by populist wisdom in deliberation / representation, and social justice for all Indonesian people. led by the precepts of popular wisdom in a consultative / representative, is, based on, overwhelmed and inspired by the sila-sila Belief in God Almighty, just and civilized humanity, and underlying causes, including animating sila-sila and belief in one God, Humanity just and civilized, Indonesian unity and social justice for all Indonesian people. Principles of social justice for all Indonesian people, is based, covered, and sila-sila animated by belief in one God, just and civilized humanity, unity of Indonesia, and the Populist led by wisdom in consultative / representative "

4. How does the structure of the Hierarchical Structure of Pancasila Pyramid?
Sila-unitary formulation relationship that is hierarchical principles of Pancasila and the pyramidal shape when formulated with a simple diagram, are as follows: Sila 1, include, underlies and animates sila-sila two, three, four and five second Sila, covered, and is based on inspired by the precepts 1, and also underlies and animates sila-sila 3.4, and 5. Sila 3, overwhelmed, inspired by the precepts 1 and 2, and includes, underlies and animates sila-sila 4 and 5. Sila 4, overwhelmed, based on and inspired by the precepts 1.2 and 3 and include, underlies and animates Sila sila 4 5, covered, based on and inspired by sila-sila 1,2,3, and 4. Illustration above provides that the formulation of the concept of the Unitary relationship Pancasila Sila-sila complement and qualify each other. Sila-sila unitary Pancasila "Compound Single", "hierarchical pyramid;" also has properties qualify each other and complement each other. It is intended that each of the precepts contained in the values of the four other precepts, or with other words in each of the four precepts always be qualified by the other precepts. (Notonagoro, the State Philosophy Pancasila Association of the Republic of Indonesia, 1962 in Sunoto, Know Your Five Principles Approach through Metaphysics Philosophy, Logic and Ethics, 3rd edition, PT. Hanindita Graha Widya, Yogyakarta, 2000, page 91. Kaelan, State Judicial Education Pancasila, Paradigm, Yogyakarta, third edition, 1999, pages 68-71 Notonagoro, Pancasila In Popular Science, Pantjuran Seven, Jakarta, pages 43-44.)

5. How to Structure Pancasila Berthawaf?
Historically juridical since 1950 Pancasila is no longer true philosophical meaning of the hierarchical pyramid structure, such as the meaning of Pancasila is the philosophical far but "berthawaf" It is proven by Sultan Hamid II transcripts as described to reporters Solichin Salam Buana News 13 April 1967 when asked the Sultan Hamid II: "inclined two large shield emblem and a shield outside the small middle, because according to Mr pendjelasan. Mohammad Hatta, who was involved in the committee formulating the Five-Principles of nine in 1945 when the exchange of opinion in the Committee of Nine in mid-June 1945, the five principles of the Five Precepts important as the defense of this nation according to him is the first principle Ketoehanan Almighty, before this nation can survive the next advanced to build the next generation / cadres pedjuang dignified nation / berprikemanusiaan symbolized by the precepts which both the just and civilized humanity, after it was built Indonesian unity third principle, because only with inter-country unite and blend in the United States of Indonesia became the nation is strong, the new building of the next steps of parliament in a democratic country RIS consultative / representative, because with the way that can be together mewudjudkan social justice for all people Indonesia, the basins of the people, for the people by the people because of dedication to the nation and God in God. Top pendjelasan Prime Minister of the RIS, then only the middle shield small input-shaped symbol of unity sila Nur Tjahaya segilima pointed star, symbolizing the idea of the direction are noteworthy Pantja Sila was just following the movement direction when people are "berthawaf" / hour in opposite directions Djarum / "gilirbalik" said Borneo language of symbols into one symbol sila sila seterusnja second and, because seharusnja like that as a nation browse / descry sedjarahnja and roots trace back to where the direction of the Indonesian nation was brought forward so as not to lose their meaning spirit and "djatidiri"-them; when mendjabarkan values of the Five-Precepts berbangsanja regarding all aspects of life, such as various messages Jang His Majesty's speech at every opportunity. That then just create an image symbolizing the Five Sila with the concept of spin-motion 'thawaf' / turn behind the words in Borneo as a symbol of the concept of building a prediction of the future direction of travel of Indonesia which we love.

6. What Philosophy of Pancasila berthawaf?
"... Philosophy" thawaf "contains a message that the idea of the Five-Precepts could didjabarkan together in developing countries, because it was" thawaf "or turn Kalimantannja behind by language, there is the meaning which makes kembali-membangun/vermogen tudjuannja on a clear target , viz just and prosperous society which coexist in harmony and peace, that by His Excellency the President Soerkarno Jang, referred to in udjungnja falsafahnja direction, namely to build the country but the moral remains high mendjunjung religious values of each religion that is in the bosom of the people nation in other parts of the territory of the state of RIS and retains the original character of his people in accordance with the "djatidiri" nation / inclined to build a "nation-building character" according pendjelasan Jang His Excellency the President to the course. (author of the original copy the appropriate spelling).

Based on transcripts of Sultan Hamid II of the above is clear, that designed the State Seal of Sultan Hamid II of actually trying to visualize the Pancasila into a symbol of the State or memsimbolisasikan precepts of Pancasila and unity is nur light for the fourth and inappropriate other precepts in mind, that RI State Coat of today are historically real RIS state symbol set on February 11, 1950 by Parliament RIS, then the drawing becomes official attachment PP No. 66 Year 1950 this case as defined in Article Article 6: "The Comparison of color and symbol size Republic of Indonesia is as depicted in the annex to Government Regulation This, then drawing the same symbol of the country became an official annex of Law No. 24 Year 2009 on Article 50 The form, color and size comparison of the State Seal referred to in Article 46 through Article 49 contained in the annex are an integral part of this Act, because It is the last picture of the design improvements Sultan Hamid II of the disposition of Soekarno March 20, 1950 and made by him in size and scale of authentic documents submitted to the Supreme Mas July 18, 1974 is currently in private rooms Foundation Mas Agung Mas Agung, Jakarta Senen Kwitang.

7. How to trace the history of the Pancasila berthawaf ?
If we can be exposed to more in-depth exploration of some of the following: First, that since August 17, 1945 until February 10, 1950 State of the Republic of Indonesia does not or do not have a symbol of state and the juridical constitutional concerning the State Seal is not regulated in the 1945 Constitution and a new set after accommodating the recommendations of the National Seminar on the History of Law at Cal-State Seal Bars, in 2000 and elements of society, Kal-Bar filed an amendment to the 1945 formula for adding article 36 to 36 A of the state symbol, so the sound is the Garuda Pancasila State Coat of Arms with the motto Unity in Diversity as the recommendations presented at the First Assembly of PAH in 2000, through the Chairman MPR / DPR Akbar Tandjung at the Hotel Kapuas Palace Pontianak, such as thesis research recommendations. Secondly, For the real history Coat State honesty that is used today is a symbol actually historically RIS countries, since established by Parliament on February 11, 1950 RIS constitutional mandate of Article 3 paragraph 3 RIS Government established the State Coat of stamp duty and, later, when the RIS changes to the RI state symbol in 1950 under the Provisional Constitution of RIS are then became an official annex PP No. 66 Year 1950 as defined in Article 6 "Shape Comparison of color and symbol size Republic of Indonesia is as depicted in the annex to this Government Regulation" and then the second amendment to the Constitution since 1945 in 2000 , picture symbols RI State official in the appendix PP No. 66 Year 1950 later became official attachment of Act No. 24 of 2009 as stated in Article 50: "Form, color, and size comparison of State Coat of Arms referred to in Article 46 through Article 49 listed in the appendix accompanying this Act.

Third, the historical background that became the State Coat of juridical official attachment PP No. 66 Year 1950 and Law No. 24 Year 2009 is the result of a normative juridical Sultan Hamid II of the draft RIS and the days since the year 2000 became a constitutional state attribute as a symbol of the RI based on Article 36 A symbol is the Garuda Pancasila state with the motto Unity in Diversity and pursuant to section 36 C 1945 amendment further elaborated into the Law No. 24 Year 2009 ABOUT THE FLAG, LANGUAGE, AND THE SYMBOL OF STATE, AS WELL AS the national anthem, which was previously only provided in Regulation No. 66 Year 1950 About Coat of State Constitution in 1950 as a translation of Article 3 paragraph 3: "Stamp and Seal of State established by the Government" and Government Regulation No. 66 Year 1950 Transitional Provisions enacted under the provisions of Article II of the Constitution in 1945.

Fourth, an analysis of legal history since 1978 in a statement Bung Hatta Bung Hatta book, answer, page 108.112 which states that what makes a symbol of the state is the Sultan Hamid II and inaugurated the use by the Cabinet RIS dated February 11, 1950 and accepted by the Government and Parliament, who emerge polemic designing the actual state symbol, and the last statement Akmal Sutja, 1986 in the book Around the Garuda Pancasila, p. 78-79 states until there is research that can be trusted on this matter, would be acceptable only information bung Hatta, that Sultan Hamid II, which has got inspiration brilliantly to lift back the original symbols of the Indonesian people who have been honored by the Indonesian nation throughout its history, Bung Hatta Because one of the leaders of trusted enough time to be vice president, membernarkan this opinion, rather than presumptions based on the background of Muhammad Yamin only "and This statement, in 1999 Author (S2 students Turiman UI Master of Legal Studies Legal Faktulas Untan) raised thesis research in the form of normative juridical approach to legal history for a state symbol 2 (two) years to prove scientifically, that is true Sultan Hamid II who designed the Coat of State who form a picture like this, that in 1950 the days of RIS.

Fifth, that the State Coat of Garuda Pancasila with the motto Unity in Diversity is a symbol of the ideology of Pancasila and this was emphasized by President Soekarno, July 22, 1958 "Eagles Eagles, garuda right-wing and left wing berelar 17 fruits, with a tail that berelar 8 fruits, dates 17 months 8, and the berkalungkan shield depicted on the shield of Pancasila. The written underneath artificial seloka professor Tantular "Unity in Diversity", Bhina Ika Tunggal Ika, ¬ manifold but a single type of symbol which has thus ..... People stuck in it the heart of Indonesia, so that this symbol has become flesh and blood in his love of the people of Indonesia to the Republic, so that the disaster will be highly exalted spiritual basis of our country if it be changed, if the State was not established and dilangengkan: Pancasila. For now the state emblem The Indonesian people have been loved by the outposts to the village is a symbol that bersendikan to Pancasila. Something changes from the State Association of bringing change to the state symbol. "
Sixth, Prof Dr Drs Notonagoro in Speech Dies Natalis Langga Air University on 10 November 1955 at this time many referenced and be back when discussing the philosophy of Pancasila. Notonagoro argues, in his book Philosophy Pancasila Association of the Republic of Indonesia, in 1962 argued: "The composition of Pancasila is hierarchis and has a pyramidal shape. If the core essence, the sequence of the five principles indicate a short circuit in this area, each was behind sila sila Another is the specialism of the sila-sila which dimukanya. If the sequences of the five precepts are considered to have an intention so, then there is a relationship among the five precepts that bind one to the other so that Pancasila is a unified whole. Since the year 1955 that purport Pancasila taught to students and students throughout Indonesia and tends to be understood by the philosophical meaning of Pancasila legal penstudi hierarchical pyramid structure affected and impressed from Positivism paradigm or theory of Hans Kelsen Theory Stufen then forwarded various penstudi philosophy of Pancasila and Indonesian law.

Seventh, Transkirp Sultan Hamid II dated 13 April 1967 states: "It must be understood that the symbolization of ideas just follow the direction of motion when people" berthawaf "/ hour in opposite directions Djarum /" gilirbalik "said Borneo language of symbols into one symbol sila sila second and seterusnja, because seharusnja like that as a nation browse / descry sedjarahnja and roots trace back to where the direction of the Indonesian nation was brought forward so as not to lose their meaning spirit and "djatidiri"-them; when mendjabarkan the values of the Five-Precepts berbangsanja relate all areas of life, such as various speech messages Jang His Majesty at every opportunity. Clarify and explain in clear, that Pancasila is the philosophical "berthawaf" later on July 9, 2009 date of enactment of Law No. 24 Year 2009 About FLAG, LANGUAGE, AND THE SYMBOL OF STATE, National Anthem and also the Official Gazette No 109 and Supplement No. 5035 on Article 48 paragraph (1) states: "In the midst of a shield as referred to in Article 46 there is a thick black line depicting the equator. Paragraph (2) At the shield as referred to in Article 46 there are five pieces that embody the basic space of Pancasila as follows: a. basis of the supreme deity, symbolized by the light in the middle of the shield-shaped five-cornered star, b. The basis of the Fair and civilized humanity symbolized by the rope chain and square-edged circle at the bottom left of shield; c. basic unity of Indonesia is represented by a banyan tree in top left of the shield; d. Populist basis that Led by Wisdom Wisdom in Consultative / Representative symbolized by the bull's head in the top right of the shield; and base e. Social justice for all Indonesian people symbolized by cotton and rice in the lower right of the shield.
Based on the legal text of article 48 paragraph (2) of Law No. 29 Year 2004 at the top there is a philosophical values of Pancasila, which turns out, that the concept of meaning in the symbol of the Pancasila State to use the concept of rotating or her "thawaf" or in the language of Borneo 'turn back' , is this legal understanding of Pancasila during berhirarkis pyramid, so the translation of Pancasila into undanganpun regulation affected the concept of the hierarchical pyramid Whether the meaning of Pancasila as the hierarchical pyramid there is the influence of Hans Kelsen's theory? To understand this, we explore the various views of the experts by asking the following questions:

8. How Grudnorm concept in Indonesia?
Based on the above explanation, it is clear That the Five Principles contained in the opening paragraph IV in 1945 and incorporated as well as Norm Staatfundamental Grundnorm based on theory or theories of Hans Kelsen Hans Nawiasky, but in the realm of legal theory in the Indonesian Pancasila as well placed as the ideal law (Rechtidee) That questions need to be asked is What is Rechtidee? That Ought to understand the idea of Law (Rechtidee) needs to be distinguished from the understanding or our concept of law (Rechtbegriff), according to A Hamid.S. Attamimi, that the ideals of law is in our dreams, while understanding or concept of law is a fact of life associated with the value We Want (wertbezogene), with the aim to serve the values That We want to achieve (eine Wertezu dienen) . And in understanding or our concept of law lies, that is the fact That the law AIMS to achieve value - the value of law, achieve legal. With the aim of realizing ideals of law That existed at the idea, feeling, copyright and our thoughts into reality.

9. That is the understanding of legal ideals real?
To answer this question, referring to the view We Stamler Rudolf (1856-1939), a philosopher WHO homage to neo-Kantian law, argued That the goal is the construction of the law think it is imperative for the law directs to the ideals - ideals That the community desired. Cita serves law as a guiding star (Leitstern) for the achievement of ideals - ideals of society. Although an end point That Can not be achieved, but the ideals of law to benefit Because it contains two sides: a legal goal We Can positive test applicable law, and to the ideals of law We May direct the positive law as an attempt by coercive Sanctions to something That is fair, therefore, according to Stammler, justice is the business or direct the actions of positive law to the ideals of law. Thus, a just law is positive law has a goal-directed nature of the law to achieve the goal - the goal of society, while Gustav Radbruch (1879-1949) a philosopher of law but Also homage to the Neo-Kantian schools of Baden or the School of West Germany - power, asserting That the ideals of law not only serves as a benchmark That is regulative, Which test whether a positive law is just or unjust, it serves as a base Also Which is a constitutive, ie determining the That ideals of law, the laws would lose on their meaning if the law as the law does not realize the value of justice

10. Are Relationships Between Five Principles embodied in the Pancasila idea of Law and Legal norms embodied in the Highest?
As Gustav Radbruch view, that the law serves as a basic goal but constitutive That Is Also have a regulatory function determines whether a positive That law That Can realize the foundation of law purposes, namely (1) of legal certainty (Rechtmatigheid), justice ( Justice) and realize the benefits (Doelmatigheid) or conflict of Those Things three together in a practical level, according to the authors ideally Three Things Are met in realizing the ideals of Pancasila as the law, but if there is a conflict, then the purpose of the law, namely That benefit must be advanced, while the view of legal positivism, the rule of law is the ultimate goal and it Became the issue Pls only state law in shaping the pursuit of legal certainty, while the ideals of Pancasila as the law Should make it three goals in a synergistic with the law in accordance Objectives of the exposed opening of the 1945 Constitution.

11. How to view Hans Kelsen Doctrine Of Sides Philosophy of Science and Philosophy of Law and Legal Theory By The Revier Law In Indonesia?
Sidhartha give the interesting presentation with a title in a Misnomer Essays in Legal positivism Nomenclature and reasoning Presented in the book Research Methods Law, Issued by Constellation and Reflections Indonesia, Yayasan Obor, Jakarta, July 2009 edited by Sulistyowati Irianto and Shidarta: "Hans Kelsen's That view the law of the elements Purify Should non-law was not born from empty space, but influenced the philosophy of science. A stream, including the theory of pure law of Hans Kelsen, born Philosophical and from a strong note the ideas - ideas That instantaneous or respond to conditions particular issue. Because it before elaborating the thought of Hans Kelsen, it helps the keep track of Hans Kelsen epistemology of the "purification of law" with the probe into the area of Philosophy of Science. '.
The question is if the epistemology of Hans Kelsen to probe into the area of Philosophy of Sciences signed at the level of the path to Nowhere? "Purification of the interests of Sciences, took place in the history of the two lines. On the first point, giving priority to the ABILITY of Humans WHO consider the ratio of pure knowledge Can be obtained through the human ratio. The first point was pioneered by Plato Which emphasizes the role of intuition. Plato thought That true knowledge is knowledge not a single change - change, namely the knowledge That Captures the idea - an idea. priori knowledge of human nature, has adhered to the ratio of Itself, then the human task is to recall what Became a Priory in rasionnya, that idea - idea. For that Humans must be constantly clear knowledge of the elements - elements That change - change in order to penetrate the nature of reality or an idea - an idea. Track this rationality reveals Itself in modern philosophy again, appearing Philosophers like Rene Descartes, Malebrache, Spinoza, Leibniz, and the Wolff. They assume a knowledge true That Can be obtained in the ratio of Itself and generated a priori nature of the statement - a statement a logical, analytical, and matimatis ". On The Opposite lane or the second line, the emphasis on the role of experience and empirical observation of objects of knowledge are therefore asposteriori. At this point Aristotle standing majoring Abstraction. According to Aristotle, true knowledge is the result of empirical observation. Knowledge is asposteriori. So the task is to Observe the human element - the element to change - change and make Abstraction of the elements - the elements That changes - Modify and perform abstract element - the element is, Thus acquired is of particular events do Abstraction universal.Untuk Cleanse Themselves Should this man from the elements - elements That change - change. The path is a place of empiricism in modern philosophy of mind dai support from Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume, the WHO was standing in this line. These Philosophers assume saejati That Can knowledge be obtained through observation of sensory evidence. " Based on the two paths of knowledge in the acquisition of the knowledge base according to the author they want are Different, the first path through the method of deduction and the second path through the method of induction, but both are the Same - The Same That opinion Can a pure theory be obtained by way of cleaning the knowledge of encouragement - encouragement and interests - the interests of human beings (subjectivity). According to the authors, although the acquisition of the knowledge base of the two but really are not Different Things need to be confronted by dikhotomis faced, why? Because the structure of divine law in the proposition there are two structures, namely the legal structure or written That Is Called a paragraph - a paragraph kauliyah and legal structures are not written or That Called the Verses kauniyah and second structures Pls Included in the construction of law is something inseparable but distinguishable. This means That the idea - the idea of both the real and empirical problems are connected to Each other only in terms of epistemology, there are two patterns of the first approach, if penstudi law Depart from theoretical constructs and then look at the empirical level is then Called to obtain the deduction and scientific truth or perform the verification, whereas if the law Depart from the construction penstudi empirical facts and then analyzed with the construction of this theory Came to Be Called induction and to acquire scientific truth, the empirical data structured Should Also Chosen based on the method of data analysis and Performed data validation.

12. How to Critique of Hans Kelsen's theory?
Based on exposures above Can it be exposed to criticism of the theory of Hans Kelsen, namely:

First, the Thought of Hans Kelsen is "purely normative" since long ago has many attractive penstudi jurists and law, as being present the philosophy of law Pls Which is still dominated by the flow of natural law was too busy to talk mainstram speculative and ontological debate about what the meaning of fairness, eligibility / benefits and offer an alternative paradigm Finally positivism of PE is the current reality of normative legal settlement is further away from the concrete problem, Because being pursued only legal certainty, and it proves That the law in actual empirical level is not free of values, hence the need for legal analysis of the double-paradigmatic, the synergy Between the natural law paradigm with the paradigm pospositivisme rationally based Morality.

Second, cleaning or refining the law of non-legal elements (an epistemology) is final and absolute basis for Kelsen. Many people call Hans Kelsen as a foundation stone of the theory and science of self-discipline menjadisuatu law (autonomus dicipline). Hans Kelsen is what epistemological foundation Until now invite debate, including within the legal penstudi, Kelsen Rejected Because the validity of norms Pls tested from something That is not the norm. Kelsen of understanding of the Consequences Of thinking Gave birth to the theory of norm levels (stufen desrecht) That Are Arranged in a hierarchy of legal norms and the theory of Tiered this system influenced legislation in many countries, including Indonesia, the norm Nowhere is the source for the preparation of high norms - norms underneath.

Third, Hans Kelsen is relatively Successful Pls explaining a hierarchical system of legal norms emerging positive. The problem Pls he reached the top of the hierarchy system, Which was named Grundnorm (basic norms). (Written by: Mr. Nur Turiman Fachturahman. Lecturel Tanjungpura University Faculty of Law, emailqitriancenter@yahoo.co.id and contact person: 628125695414 West Borneo)


Ahmad Ali, uncover Law, Candra CV Pratama, Ujung Pandang, 2009 Curzon, LB, Jurisprudence, F & E Handbook, 1979

Friedmen, Wolfgang, 1953. Legal Theory. London. Stevens & Sons Hans Kelsen, Pure Theory of Law, Basics Normative Legal Studies which is translated from the Book of Pure Theory of Law (Berkeley University of California Press, 1978) by Raisul Mutaqqien, August, Publisher, Nusa Media, Bandung, 2008

Transcripts Sultan Hamid II 13 April 1967